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In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red".Tuva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars.From 1758–1911 it was part of Mongolia which was under Manchu rule itself.During the 1911 revolution in China, Tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans.In 1930, the pro-Soviet regime discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tuva by Russian linguists. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.
The territory of Tuva has been controlled by the Xiongnu Empire (209 BC–93 AD) and Mongolian Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Northern Yuan (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758).
The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion.
This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tuvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East.
Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named the governor of the territory.