Histological dating endometrium
The blastocyst implants into the endometrium making the uterus gravid.If implantation does not occur, the superficial part of the endometrium is shed during the (hemorrhagic) menstrual phase of the uterine mucous membrane lining of the uterus, consisting of the stratum compactum, the stratum spongiosum, and the stratum basale.Despite those attempts to refine the technique of endometrial biopsy, the definitive study to validate this diagnostic approach has never been done, and thus the relationship between histological changes and endometrial receptivity remains unknown (3, 10, 11).In recent years, an intensive search for specific markers for receptivity has been undertaken.The histologic features of what constitutes “normal” endometrium change with a woman’s age, through the premenarchal, reproductive, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal years.During the reproductive years, the cyclical hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle provide a continuously changing morphologic phenotype that is “normal.” In biopsy specimens, the combination of these cyclical changes along with artifacts and limited sampling can make normal patterns difficult to interpret.
6–8 d after ovulation) is more sensitive for identifying altered patterns of endometrial maturation (3–5).
Where fertilization does not occur, it regresses, or in the case of humans, anthropoid apes and Old-World monkeys, it breaks down over a few days, producing bleeding. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs cancer, and it is widely considered to develop from endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, which is related to malignant transformation of the endometrial surface epithelium (such as a benign endometrial polyp).
is the best accessible tissue for histopathological evaluation of uterine bleeding, several methods are used for endometrial sampling among which the dilatation of the cervix and curettage of the uterine cavity under general anaesthesia has long been the gold standard for the assessment of AUB.
A NORMAL ENDOMETRIAL milieu is essential in embryo implantation, and understanding the factors that contribute to a receptive endometrium is, at present, a pivotal area of research.
Traditionally, this has been accomplished by histological dating of the endometrial biopsy specimen obtained in the late secretory phase (1, 2).
It has been accepted that the endometrial biopsy, properly obtained and properly diagnosed, can serve as a bioassay.